SOLID WASTE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT AT ENUGU URBAN USING COMPARATIVE MODELS
Prof Luke Chika Eme, and Engr Anthony Ezemerihe
Department Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, COOU
The study is aimed at studying solid waste management at Enugu Urban. The objectives of the study are as follows: to review existing municipal solid waste management in Enugu urban, to quantify solid waste volume in Enugu urban, to determine the characteristics of solid waste generation in Enugu urban, to apply Jacobi’s Iteration Model as a better waste management system for Enugu urban, to develop the optimization modeling cost to model the cost effective solid waste management system and planning for Enugu and to convert waste to wealth. The problems of the study are: urbanization and industrialization which are the key contributors to solid waste generation. Enugu urban generates significant amount of both hazardous and non hazardous wastes. The progressive increase of solid waste generation and the corresponding increase in disposal cost, environmental and health concern, limited landfill, composting dumping site, etc affect the Enugu Urban Waste Management (EUWM). Enugu urban requires protection of the environment and human life and other pollution menace; and a substantial quantity of Municipal solid waste (MSW) is disposed unhygienic ally in open dump thereby creating problems to the public and the environment. Methodology: the methods involve the use of questionnaire and the Jacobi’s iteration model. The results of the iteration optimization model converge at the following points X1 = 2162, X2 = 2222, X3 =3880 and X4 = 3242. The results further show that the objective function maximize profit at Z =N21,072, 853.00 per ton per day. The optimal solution of the Jacobi’s model resulted in N21.07 million per ton per day with benefit of cost recovery ofN7.67 billion per ton per annum. The total revenue per annum from solid waste generated using Jacobis iteration model was N18.409 trillion. This compares favorably with the result obtained from the Game theory model iteration of N18.284 trillion with a difference of N0.125 trillion or N125.00billion. In experimental hypothesis, three hypotheses were tested from the responses of three hundred (300) respondents using ‘Z’ test at 0.05 level of significance with the critical values of –1.96 to 1.96. All the computed ‘Z’ value fall between the critical values. This led to the rejection of the Null hypothesis and Accept of the alternative hypothesis; (i) Enugu State Management Authority has inadequate disposable which affect their inability for efficient service delivery, (ii) changes in government policy affect solid waste planning and management in line with global best practices etc. The work conclusion is as follows: that integrated solid waste management through proper planning and management of waste generation, disposal and treatment, source reduction, waste recycling, use of compaction vehicles, reuse etc. The Jacobi’s Iteration optimization model revealed how solid waste generated can be maximized by turning it into wealth for the economic benefit of the state. The work recommended the establishment of waste recycling plants, source reduction of waste through effective legislation, procurement of more compression delivery vehicles to ease collection and disposal and proper education of the people of Enugu urban on the best management.
The planning and management of solid waste generation in Enugu the capital city of Enugu state has been an issue of concern to successive government in Enugu both at state and local government areas. Various strategies to tackling the problem enunciated by successive governments are inconsistent with the global standard.Solid waste problem in Enugu contributes to the contamination of the streams, river, land and the atmosphere. Waste disposal operations are becoming increasingly sophisticated with specialist companies and facilities, leaving the developing countries to rise up to the challenges. In some cities of developing countries, bulk of solid waste, are seen on streets and in open spaces. This waste to say the least disfigures the city, creates an eyesore and also poses tremendous health hazards to the public. The under estimation of the amount of solid wastes generated is one basic problem that has hampered most planning and management of solid wastes in most cities. This has led to poor design calculation which has resulted into incorrect capacity of waste management systems. The possession of corrected and adequate information on the rate of generation and composition of wastes generated will make it easy to propose and implement an effective method of management (Aramabi, 1998). Therefore, the generation rate and composition of the wastes generated in Enugu must be first identified in order to know the best management options to use.
Background of the Study
Urban solid waste planning and management is one of the most serious problem faced by urban centres all over the world. The management of the quantity of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), which is an indicator of an urban lifestyle, has been a nagging problem all over the Enugu community as a result of great increases in population, rise in the living standard,etc.These have increased Solid waste generation rate in Enugu and have made solid waste composition more complex and heterogeneous. This problem is worse in public places such as Schools, Markets, Mechanics sites etc. in which Municipal Solid Waste Management is highly neglected.
There have been an increase in population of Enugu Urban from 3,170 people in 1921, 12, 959 in 1931, 138, 874 in 1963, 385,735 in 1983 to 722,664 in 2006 (NPC Report, 2006) and it is projected to be at least 900,319 in 2020. Enugu state recorded a total of 3, 267, 837 people in 2006 with a population density of 268 persons per square kilometers while the average national density is about 96 persons per sq.km. The urban population concentration is high with densities ranging between 300-600 persons per sq.km (NPC, 2006). However, the high density area neighbourhood contains about seventy percent (70%) of the entire neighbourhoods in Enugu Metropolis, the medium density areas contains about twenty eight percent (28%), while the low density contain about two percent (2%) of the urban population (Enugu Master Plan, 1992).
In many areas dump-sites are not adequate, indiscriminate and unhygienic waste dumps existed, and solid waste collection in some dumpsites were not regular due to inadequate disposal vehicles, plant and machinery to tackle the waste management. Public enlightenment was more on payments of Enugu State Waste Management Authority (ESWAMA) sanitation fees than proper education on protection of environment and human lives, population control measures and other indicators for sustainable environmental hygiene measures. There is one major disposal site and no data base for solid waste planning and management. Some used vehicle tyres and construction wastes are packed on some dump-sites along the road sides for years with progressive increase in quantity without hope on when they will be collected and disposed. There are policy changes on waste management with change in government administration of Enugu state and inadequate capacity of waste handlers which hamper the development of a comprehensive master plan for solid waste management in Enugu.
Spontaneous increase in volume and types of solid waste as a result of continuous economic growth and urbanization is becoming a growing problem for national and local governments (Garwyn, 2003). Solid waste survey and characterization are special tools in bringing to light the generation rate and composition of solid waste (Sincero and Sincere, 2006). It is too common to have solid waste disposed in Enugu without attempting to explore the wealth creation options of solid waste management. Management methods such as recovery, recycling, and reuse are very important tools for creating wealth from waste. These and other solid waste management alternatives cannot be effective without the correct knowledge of solid waste compositions in Enugu. Oyinlola(1999) stated that it is not essentially every composition of solid waste that can be further utilized as resources for wealth creation. Therefore, solid waste components in Enugu must be well classified to make the compositions readily differentiable to intended stakeholders
Investigation from Enugu State Waste Management Authority (ESWAMA) charged with distribution of solid waste in Enugu urban indicates that, there is no effective and efficient solid waste management programme.Most of the inhabitants in the area do not know what is expected of them as regards solid waste management. Out of the need to get rid of the solid waste from their domains and relieve themselves of its nuisance, the inhabitants dump the refuse behind their houses and indiscriminately in nearby open dumps. Some of the solid waste is dumped in the water channels, gullies, river side and any available spaces. In most cases, the refuse accumulates, encroaching on roads and streets. Open burning has therefore become the main method of reducing the volume of solid waste leading to air pollution in Enugu. In fact, solid waste disposal/management is said to be the highest environmental problem because at the moment, there is no effective existing solid waste management/disposal technology for the area.
It is essential for adequate attention to be paid to all components of solid waste management so as to ensure cost-effectiveness and sustainability of the management system. There are ten components of effective solid waste management which include:
(i) Waste Generation, (ii) Waste storage, (iii) Waste collection, (iv) Waste reduction, (v) Waste transfer, (vi) Waste recycling, (vii) Waste re-use, (viii) Waste resources recovery (ix) Waste treatment/processing and (x) Waste disposal.
Eme L. C. and Ezemerihe A., (2022) “Solid Waste Planning And Management Using Comparative Jacobi’s Iteration And Game Theory Optimization Models At Enugu Urban, Nigeria”.